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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

286 | PRACTITIONERS

286 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6d) PregnancyA range of international legal provisions require that women’s employmentnot be terminated due to pregnancy, that women not be subject topre-migration or pre-hiring pregnancy testing, and that pregnant womenbe afforded paid maternity leave or social security protection. TheHuman Rights Committee has held that practices such as requests byemployers of pregnancy tests before hiring violate the principle of genderequality in light of the right to privacy (Articles 3 and 17, ICCPR). 1224Article 11 of CEDAW provides, among other things, that States Partiesmust, “prohibit, subject to the imposition of sanctions, dismissal on thegrounds of pregnancy or of maternity leave” and that they must “introducematernity leave with pay or with comparable social benefits withoutloss of former employment, seniority or social allowances.” Article 10 ofthe ICESCR requires that “during a reasonable period before and afterchildbirth…working mothers should be accorded paid leave or leave withadequate social security benefits.” 1225 The Human Rights Committee hasheld that practices such as mandatory pregnancy tests before hiring arenot permissible under Articles 3 and 17 of the ICCPR. 1226 The ILO MaternityProtection Conventions provides additional protection in this context. 1227IV. Freedom of association in labour rights: theright to form and join a trade unionFreedom of association is widely protected by global and regional humanrights treaties, including by Article 22 ICCPR and Article 8 ICESCR. 1228It is also protected in instruments of the ILO, including the 1919 ILOConstitution, 1229 and the ILO Philadelphia Declaration of 1944.The right to join, not to join and to establish a trade union was recognisedby ILO Convention No. 87 of 1948. It is a directly enforceable1224 CCPR, General Comment No. 28, op. cit., fn. 22, para. 20. See also, CEDAW, General RecommendationNo. 24, op. cit., fn. 29, para. 22.1225 Article 10.2 ICESCR.1226 See, fn. 1224.1227 Maternity Protection Convention (C3), ILO, adopted on 28 November 1919 (29 Parties,5 Denounced); Maternity Protection Convention (Revised) (C103), ILO, adopted on 28 June1952 (ratified 30, denounced 11); Maternity Protection Convention (C183), ILO, Adopted on15 June 2000 (ratified 18). While these have not met with wide ratification they can be usedas a tool of interpretation of the obligations arising from CEDAW and other treaties. TheConventions apply irrespective of nationality.1228 Article 22 ICCPR; Article 8 ICESCR; Articles 20 and 23.4 UDHR; Article 10 ACHPR; Article 35ArCHR; Article XXII ADRDM; Article 16 ACHR; Article 8, Protocol of San Salvador; Article 11ECHR; Article II.19.4(b) ESC(r). See, on trade unions angle, Declaration on the HumanRights of Individuals Who are not Nationals of the Country in which They Live, Article 8.1(b);Article 5 ESC(r).1229 Preamble, ILO Constitution.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 287right which can be claimed in court. Article 2 of the ILO Convention setsout the basic principle:“Workers and employers, without distinction whatsoever, shallhave the right to establish and, subject only to the rules of theorganisation concerned, to join organisations of their own choosingwithout previous authorisation.”As declared by the ILO Congress in 1998, this right entails an obligationto promote and realise freedom of association, which is binding on allMembers of the ILO, even those who are not parties to Convention No.87. 1230 Freedom of association includes the freedom of the organisations todraw up their own constitutions and rules, elect their representatives, organisetheir administration and formulate their programmes, 1231 the rightof the organisations not to be subject to dissolution or suspension by theadministrative authority, 1232 and the right of the organisations to establishand join federations and confederations, whether national or international.1233 The exercise of these rights by the organisations must respectnational law, which “shall not be such as to impair, nor shall it be so appliedas to impair, the guarantees” contained in the Convention. 1234 Finally,freedom of association consists also in a right not to join a trade union. 1235Freedom of association, in trade union matters, has been describedby the Inter-American Court of Human Rights as being “of the utmostimportance for the defence of the legitimate interests of the workers,and falls under the corpus juris of human rights.” 1236 Moreover, theCourt has specified that this safeguard “has great importance based onthe principle of the inalienable nature of such rights, which all workerspossess, irrespective of their migratory status, and also the fundamentalprinciple of human dignity embodied in Article 1 of the UniversalDeclaration”. 12371230 Article 2, ILO 1998 Declaration.1231 Article 3, Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention (C87),ILO, adopted on 9 July 1948. Other relevant ILO Conventions are Right to Organise andCollective Bargaining Convention (C98), ILO, adopted on 1 July 1949; and Rural Workers’Organisations Convention (C141), ILO, adopted on 23 June 1975.1232 Article 4, ibid.1233 Article 5, ibid.1234 Article 8, ibid.1235 See, Young, James and Webster v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, Plenary, Application No. 7601/76;7806/77, Judgment of 13 August 1981, paras. 52, 57; Sorensen and Rasmussen v. Denmark,ECtHR, GC, Applications Nos. 52562/99 and 52620/99, Judgment of 11 January 2006;Sigurjonsson v. Iceland, ECtHR, Application No. 16130/90, Judgment of 30 June 1993. Seealso, Article 10.2 ACHPR; Article 8.3, Protocol of San Salvador.1236 Baena-Ricardo et al. v. Panama, IACtHR, Series C No. 72, Judgment of 2 February 2001,para. 158.1237 Advisory Opinion on Undocumented Migrants, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 33, para. 157 (emphasisadded).

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    ISBN 978-92-9037-151-X

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