196 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6gans, as it is the case for privately-run detention centres for migrantsor asylum-seekers. In this situation, the State is directly internationallyresponsible for international wrongful acts, including breaches of internationalhuman rights law, caused by acts or omissions of privateor non-state actors. 725 International human rights law obligations andstandards on treatment of detainees and conditions of detention applyirrespective of whether detention facilities are operated by State authorities,or by private companies on behalf of the State. This derivesfrom the principle that a State cannot absolve itself from responsibilityfor its human rights obligations by delegating its responsibilities to aprivate entity. 726III. Treatment of detaineesEven where detention of migrants can be justified on the basis of the standardsdiscussed above, international human rights law imposes furtherconstraints on the place and regime of detention, the conditions of detention,and the social and medical services available to detainees. In addition,it imposes obligations to protect detainees from violence in detention. Themost relevant standard for the treatment of detainees is the prohibition oncruel, inhuman and degrading treatment (Article 16 CAT, Article 7 ICCPR,Article 3 ECHR, Article 5 ACHR, Article 5 ACHPR). The Convention againstTorture establishes that States have obligations to take effective measuresto prevent acts of torture 727 and of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatmentor punishment 728 including to keep under systematic review arrangementsfor the custody and treatment of persons subjected to any form of detentionwith a view to preventing torture and ill-treatment. 729Article 10.1 ICCPR makes specific provision for the right of detainedpersons to be treated with humanity and respect for their dignity, amore specific application of the general right under Article 7 ICCPR tofreedom from torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatmentor punishment. Article 5.2 ACHR, Article 5 ACHPR and Article 20 ArCHRalso make similar specific provision for the treatment of persons de-725 Article 5, Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, adoptedby the International Law Commission at its 53 rd session in 2001, in Yearbook of theInternational Law Commission, 2001, vol. II, Part Two (ILC Draft Articles on State Responsibility).See also, Commentary on the Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for InternationallyWrongful Acts, adopted by the International Law Commission at its 53 rd session in2001, Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 2001, vol. II, Part Two, on Article 5,pp. 42–43 (ILC State Responsibility Commentary).726 Costello-Roberts v. United Kingdom, ECtHR, op. cit., fn. 401, para. 27; Ximenes-Lopes v.Brazil, IACtHR, op. cit., fn. 586.727 Article 2.1 CAT.728 Article 16.1 CAT.729 Article 11 read together with Article 16.1 CAT.
MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 197prived of their liberty. It has been suggested that Article 10 ICCPR mayextend to treatment less harsh than that covered by Article 7 ICCPR,since the Human Rights Committee has found violations of Article 10in many cases where it has found no violation of Article 7. 730 In addition,provisions of other international instruments may be relevant interms of protecting the human rights of certain categories of detainedmigrants (CEDAW, CRPD, and Article 37 CRC).Detailed standards on conditions of detention are set out in the UNStandard Minimum Rules on the Treatment of Prisoners; 731 the Body ofPrinciples for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention orImprisonment; 732 the United Nations Rules for the Protection of JuvenilesDeprived of their Liberty; 733 and the United Nations Rules for the Treatmentof Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders aswell as, at a European level, the CPT standards. These standards providecomprehensive recommendations on conditions and facilities to beprovided in all forms of detention, including immigration detention. Asregards asylum seekers, the UNHCR Guidelines on Detention provide that“[c]onditions of detention must be humane and dignified.” They emphasisein particular that detained asylum seekers should have the opportunity tohave contact with the outside world and to receive visits; the opportunityfor exercise and indoor and outdoor recreation; the opportunity to continuetheir education; the opportunity to exercise their religion; and accessto basic necessities i.e. beds, shower facilities, basic toiletries etc. 734The Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and otherCruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OPCAT) and,in the European system, the European Convention for the Preventionof Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (ECPT)have established independent committees of experts—respectively theUN Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture (SPT) and the EuropeanCommittee for the Prevention of Torture (CPT)—with mandates to visitdetention facilities of State parties without limitations and to issue recommendations.735 The OPCAT also requires State Parties to establish730 Manfred Nowak, UN Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Commentary, 2 nd Revised Edition,N.P. Engel Publisher, 2005 (Nowak, ICCPR Commentary), pp. 245–250.731 UN Standard Minimum Rules on the Treatment of Prisoners, adopted in 1955, approvedby the Economic and Social Council by its resolutions 663 C (XXIV) of 31 July 1957 and2076 (LXII) of 13 May 1977.732 Adopted by General Assembly resolution 43/173 of 9 December 1988.733 Adopted by General Assembly resolution 45/113 of 14 December 1990.734 UNHCR Guidelines on Detention, op. cit., fn. 633, Guideline 8.735 The mandate and powers of visit of the SPT are to be found in Articles 4, 11.1, 12, and14 of the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhumanor Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OPCAT); and of the CPT in Articles 2 and 7 of theEuropean Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment orPunishment (ECPT).