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Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

Universal-MigrationHRlaw-PG-no-6-Publications-PractitionersGuide-2014-eng

324 | PRACTITIONERS

324 | PRACTITIONERS GUIDE No. 6final, when the parties declare that they will not request referral to theGrand Chamber, or when three months have passed from the date ofthe judgment, without this referral being asked, or the Grand Chamberrejected the request of referral. 1427Just satisfaction: If the Court finds a violation, it will afford just satisfactionto the injured party. 1428 To make the award, the Court will needto receive from the applicant a specific claim of just satisfaction, andthe submission of items particular to the claim, together with any relevantsupporting document, within the time-limits set by the Presidentfor submission of the applicant’s observations on the merits. 1429Additionally, “[i]n certain particular situations, [. . .] the Court may findit useful to indicate to the respondent State the type of measures thatmight be taken in order to put an end to the—often systemic—situationthat gave rise to the finding of a violation [. . .]. Sometimes the natureof the violation found may be such as to leave no real choice as to themeasures required [. . .]”. 1430 In the case of Hirsi Jamaa and Othersv. Italy, since “the transfer of the applicants exposed them to the riskof being subjected to ill-treatment in Libya and of being arbitrarily repatriatedto Somalia and Eritrea”, 1431 the European Court ordered theItalian Government to “take all possible steps to obtains assurancesfrom the Libyan authorities that the applicants will not be subjected totreatment incompatible with Article 3 of the Convention or arbitrarilyrepatriated.” 1432Referral or relinquishment to the Grand Chamber: A Chambermay relinquish its jurisdiction to the Grand Chamber, composed of seventeenjudges, when the case before it “raises a serious question affectingthe interpretation of the Convention or the Protocols thereto, orwhere a resolution of a question before the Chamber might have a resultinconsistent with a judgment previously delivered by the Court”, 1433unless one of the parties to the case objects within one month fromthe relinquishment decision. 1434 Furthermore, any party may requestthe case to be referred to the Grand Chamber within three monthsfrom the Chamber’s judgment. The request will be examined by a fivejudge Panel appointed by the Grand Chamber, which will accept thecase only if it raises a serious question affecting the interpretation of1427 Article 44 ECHR.1428 Article 41 ECHR.1429 Rule 60, ECtHR Rules of Procedure.1430 Hirsi Jamaa and Others v. Italy, ECtHR, GC, op. cit., fn. 46, para. 209. The measures areordered under Article 46 ECHR.1431 Ibid. para. 211.1432 Ibid., para. 211.1433 Articles 30–31 ECHR.1434 See also, Rule 72, ECtHR Rules of Procedure.

MIGRATION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW | 325the Convention or the Protocols, or a serious issue of general importance.1435 The rules of procedure before the Chambers apply also tothe Grand Chamber proceedings, including the designation of a JudgeRapporteur. 1436i) Legal Representation and legal aidApplications may be initially presented directly by the victim or througha representative. 1437 However, the European Court system requiresmandatory representation after the application has been notified to theContracting State. 1438 The applicant may require leave to present his orher own case, which can be granted by the President of the Chamberonly “exceptionally”. The representative must be an advocate “authorisedto practise in any of the Contracting Parties and resident in theterritory of one of them, or any other person approved by the Presidentof the Chamber”. 1439 He or she must have an adequate understanding ofone of the Court’s languages, unless leave to use a different languageis given by the President of the Chamber, who can also remove an advocateif he or she considers that, because of the circumstances or theconduct, the advocate can no longer represent his or her client.Conscious of its own jurisprudence and of the costs of legal representation,the European Court of Human Rights provides for a legal aidsystem. The decision to grant legal aid is made by the President of theChamber only when it is deemed necessary for the proper conduct ofthe case and the applicant has insufficient means to meet all or partof the costs entailed. The decision to grant legal aid is made eitherfollowing the applicant’s request or proprio motu, from the momentwhen the State concerned has submitted its observations in writing onthe admissibility of the case, or when that deadline has passed. Legalaid, once granted, will cover all stages of the proceedings before theCourt, unless the President finds that the conditions for it are no longerpresent. Applicants who request legal aid must complete a form of declaration,certified by national authorities, stating their income, capitalassets, and any financial commitments in respect of dependants, or anyother financial obligations. 14401435 Article 43 ECHR. See also, Rule 73, ECtHR Rules of Procedure.1436 Rules 50 and 71, ECtHR Rules of Procedure.1437 Rules on representation are enshrined in Rule 36, ECtHR Rules of Procedure.1438 A constant failure, through a long period of time, of the applicant to contact his representativemight lead the Court to rule that s/he has lost interest in the proceedings and to strikethe case off the list. See, Ramzy v. the Netherlands, ECtHR, Application No. 25424/05,Admissibility Decision, 20 July 2010.1439 Rule 36.4(a), ECtHR Rules of Procedure.1440 See, Rules 100 to 105, ECtHR Rules of Procedure.

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