3 weeks ago

280218_Luxor-Egypt SECAP Final_revised

to climate change

to climate change impacts on the habitats in Northern lakes of Egypt such as: the lagoons of Maryut, Edku, Borullus, Manzala and Bardaweel 39 . The northern part of the Nile Delta Natural Protectorates of the “Bays of El Gamil”, “Ashtoon El Gamil”, and “Al Manzala lagoon” in Port-Said Governorate represent wetlands and natural restricted area for birds that might be affected by SLR, and similarly in “El-Brolus” protected area in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate. The habitat of almost 135 amphibious plant species and has a significant role in receiving immigration of wild birds exposed to “Zaraniq” Protected Area and “El Bardwaeel Marsh” in the North Sinai Governorate is key points for bird migration in the world and the habitat for living and reproduction. Over 270 species of birds have been recorded in the area such as Pelicans, herons, storks, crested lark, quail, white stork, lark, avocet, Hem Harrier Rail and falcon 40 ; and climate change will affect them all. A study conducted in 2014 on coral reefs in Red Sea coasts showed a significant decline on Growth of coral reefs due to bleaching as a result of change water temperature and acidity in addition to human that induced pressure and caused damage. These coral reefs are also exposed to water pollution form a high volume of commercial shipping, oil spills, sewage and nutrient loading from hotels and resorts and over fishing 41 . In Hurghada, coral reefs recorded a decline in growing and faced a 40 % decrease during 1987– 2000. It is estimated that these coral face more drastic declines of about 49% and 45% between year 2000 and 2013 respectively. This decline affects the biodiversity concerning over 1,000 species, besides the mangrove vegetation in the coasts 42 . Climate change impacts – Tourism Tourism is one of the sectors that will be affected by climate change. In 2010, tourism accounted for 11 per cent of Egypt’s GDP and provided employment for about 12 per cent of Egypt's workforce 43 . Almost 85 percent of visits to Egypt are for leisure and recreation that resulted in recreational expenditures on Red Sea corals of US$472 million (2.6 billion EGP). In 2000, 75 per cent of tourism activity in Egypt was concentrated on the Sinai and Red Sea for leisure and diving. One of the climate change manifestations is that the rise in temperatures and the increased seawater acidification would increase coral reefs’ bleaching. According to a recent study, it is also expected an 80 per cent increase in coral reefs’ bleaching in the Red Sea by 2060. One already noticed coral reefs growth decreased by 30 per cent in 2013 17 . In addition, losses in internal tourism due to SLR in many cities such as Alexandria, Port-Said, Ras el Barr, Gamasa, and Baltiem by 2025 44 . The SLR causes threat to archaeological sites in area like Abu Keer, Qaitbey Citadel, Selsela (Eastern 39 Ben Haj, S., Cebrian, D., Limam, A., Grimes, et al, "Vulnerability and impacts of climate change on marine and coastal biological diversity in the Mediterranean, Arab Countries," UNEP, Tunis, 2009 40 "Natural Protectorates Description," Ministry of Environment (MoE), Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), Available at: - Accessed on October 2015. 41 T. J. Done, "Phase shifts in coral reef communities and their ecological significance," Springer Link, Vol. 247, No. 1, pp. 121-132, November 1992. 42 H. El-Askary, S. H. Abd El-Mawla, J. Li, M. M. El-Hattab & M. El-Raey, "Change detection of coral reef habitat using Landsat-5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI data in the Red Sea (Hurghada, Egypt)," International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 35, No. 6, pp. 2327-2346, 2014. 43 "Egypt tourism numbers to fall less than feared," Reuters Africa, October 2009 - Available at: Accessed on : July 2015. 44 "Egypt’s National Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change And Disaster Risk Reduction," the Egyptian cabinet information and decision support center, December 2011. 84

harbour) in Alexandria 45 . Moreover, heat waves will affect the attractiveness and for tourism movement in Egypt due to the fact that most of tourists prefer moderate weather 46 . Climate change impacts – Health Egypt already suffers from air and water pollution. Diseases that are caused by poor water quality and sanitation kill 17,000 children per year. Concentration level of air pollution in urban centre of Greater Cairo was 82.6 mg/m3, when the World Health Organization standard is 10 mg/m 3 . This dramatic situation leads to 20,000 premature deaths yearly in Cairo and Alexandria and costs Egypt economy from 3 to 6 % GDP. Climate change could increase air pollution because high temperature and low precipitation tend to increase the pollution in the air, so annual mortality will increase by hundred to thousand and Egypt loss would be 10 to 24 billion EGP per year 17 . Air and water pollution levels in Egypt contribute to many premature deaths and morbidity. About 17,000 children per year, one-fifth of all childhood deaths, are estimated to result from poor water quality, inadequate hygiene, and poor sanitation. These conditions also contribute to high levels of infectious disease among children and adults, particularly diseases caused by worms and other parasites that result in a yearly loss of 615,000 disability adjusted life years (DALYs; World Bank, 2002). Table 10: Ranking of climate change vulnerabilities in Egypt (OECD) Resources/ risk ranking Risk Certainty of impact Severity of impact Importance of resources Coastal resources Water resources Agriculture Energy Resources - SLR - Coastal erosion Soil salinization - Decrease Nile flow - Low precipitation / Salt water intrusion / Decrease Nile flow - Low precipitation - Salt water intrusion - SLR - Soil salinization - High temperature - High temperature - Decrease Nile flow High - medium High High Medium High High Medium - low Medium - low High - Medium Medium - low Medium - low Medium - low 45 "Environment and development in coastal regions and in small islands," International Workshop on Submarine Archaeology and Coastal Management. Available at: Accessed on: July 2015. 46 Ma Bele´n Go´mez Martı´n, "WEATHER, CLIMATE AND TOURISM A Geographical Perspective," Elsevier, Barcelona, Spain, 2005. 85

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