8 months ago

Miftah-ul-Janna (Booklet for way to Paradise)

Madhhabs. There are

Madhhabs. There are three fards (farzes) in a tayammum: A tayammum that is required for making an ablution is the same as a tayammum required for making a ghusl. They differ only in their niyyats (intentions). Therefore, the two tayammums cannot be used for each other’s place. 1– To make a niyyat, which is compulsory. 2– To touch soil with both hands and thereafter to make masah on the entire face, covering the face with the hands. 3– To strike the soil with both palms once again and then first make masah on your entire right forearm with your left hand and then your entire left forearm with your right hand, (including the elbows.) These acts are all rukns, (i.e. they are fards within the tayammum. If any one of them are omitted, the tayammum will become null and void.) The proof-texts showing that the tayammum is farz are the forty-third âyat-i-kerîma of Nisâ Sûra and the sixth âyat-i-kerîma of Mâida Sûra. In the Mâlikî and Shâfi’î Madhhabs, it is not permissible to make a tayammum (which you are to use instead of an ablution to perform a certain namâz) before the beginning of (that) namâz, and more than one namâzes cannot be performed with one tayammum. (In other words, you will have to make a new tayammum for every individual namâz, waiting until its prescribed time begins.) There are six things with which it is not permissible to make a tayammum, except when there is soil dust on them. The six things are: Iron, copper, bronze, tin, gold, silver, and all other metals. Tayammum is permissible with anything other than these metals, which melt when they are heated; glass, which softens when it is heated; and glazed porcelain. However, its substance has to be earthen. Earthen ground whereon someone has urinated can be used for performing namâz on it when it dries up. But a tayammum cannot be made from it. For it being permissible to make a tayammum, it is required that you look for water, fail to find it, and ask an ’âdil and sâlih Muslim. (An ’âdil Muslim is one who never commits a grave sin and who does not commit a venial sin habitually. A sâlih Muslim is one who avoids not only harâms but also doubtful acts lest he should commit a sin inadvertently. Please see the first chapter of the sixth fascicle of Endless Bliss for the doubtful.) – 102 –

There are five obligatory essentials to be fulfilled when making a tayammum: 1– To make a niyyat. 2– To make a masah. 3– For the object to be used for making a tayammum to be of earthen matter. If it is not something made of earth, there will have to be earth dust on it. 4– The earthen object or the dust on it to be used for a tayammum has to be clean. 5– To be actually or virtually unable to use water (for making an ablution). [Weakness after a certain illness is an ’udhr as well, (in which case you may make a tayammum instead of making an ablution by using water.) So is the case with weakness on account of old age. Another convenience to be utilized by such people is that they may perform their namâz sitting.] There are seven sunnats to be performed when making a tayammum: 1– To say the Basmala, (which means to say, “Bismillâh-ir- Rahmân ir-Rahîm,” when beginning to make a tayammum.) 2– To strike the (palms of the) hands (gently) against clean soil. 3– To rub the object against which you strike your hands (gently) by moving your hands forward and backward on it once. 4– To open the fingers. 5– To shake off the dust on the hands by striking them against each other. 6– To make masah on the face first. 7– To make masah on the entire forearms including the elbows. There are four conditions to be fulfilled for looking for water. 1– For your location to be inhabited. 2– If you are informed of the existence of water. 3– If you are firmly convinced that there is water. 4– If you are not at a frightful place. If a person has found water and yet the place of the water is farther than a mile away, then it will be permissible (for that person) to make a tayammum (instead of going there to make an ablution). If the distance is shorter than a mile and it is early enough so that the prayer time will not be over, it will not be permissible to make a tayammum. [One mile is a distance of four thousand zrâ’, i.e. 0.48x4000=1920 metres in the Hanafî Madhhab.] On the other hand, if he looks for water, fails to find it, makes a tayammum and performs the namâz, and thereafter sees water, will he have to reperform his namâz? This is a question at issue (among Islamic scholars). The conclusive solution is that he will not have to reperform the namâz that he has performed. – 103 –

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