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Miftah-ul-Janna (Booklet for way to Paradise)

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late to catch up with the remaining part of the namâz of ’Iyd, or fears that he may be stranded in the crowd, he makes a tayammum and resumes his performance of the namaz. This qawl is according to Imâm A’zam (Abû Hanîfa). According to the qawl of the Imâmeyn, [1] however, he should make an ablution. [It is stated as follows in (Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Ismâ’îl) Tahtâwî’s annotation to (Abul-Ikhlâs Hasan bin Ammâr) Sherblâlî’s (commentatory book entitled) Merâq-il-felâh: “Illness is an ’udhr, (i.e. a good reason justified by Islam,) to (make it permissible to) make a tayammum (instead of making an ablution). It is not an ’udhr for a healthy person to fear that he may become ill should he make an ablution. Scholars who said that it is permissible for a healthy person to leave his fast to qadâ, (i.e. to postpone fasting until a later date,) if he fears that he may become ill should he fast (in the blessed month of Ramadân), said (also) that it is permissible for a person who fears that he may become ill to make a tayammum (instead of an ablution). Four things are meant by ‘becoming ill’: Water may be harmful (to one’s health). Movement may be harmful. One may be unable to use water. One may not be able to make a tayammum, either. Harm will be judged either by one’s strongly sensing it or by a warning on the part of an ’âdil Muslim doctor and a specialist. If an ’âdil Muslim doctor cannot be found, decision made by a doctor whose sinfulness is not known openly and publicly will be admitted. A person who is unable to use water on his own makes a tayammum if he cannot find someone to help him to make an ablution. If he has children or servants or someone to help him to make an ablution for friendship’s sake, one of these people will help him with an ablution. If none of these people is available, then he makes a tayammum. According to Imâm A’zam, he does not have to hire someone to help him in return for a payment. A person who cannot make a tayammum, either, leaves the namâz to qadâ, (i.e. postpones the namâz until he recovers.) Although husband and wife de not have to help each oher to make an ablution or to perform namâz, the husband ought to ask his wife for help. Supposing a person is outside of town and village and therefore cannot find hot water; he makes a tayammum if he is afraid of becoming ill should he make a ghusl with cold water. A fatwâ has been given that this rule applies within urban areas as well. If more [1] Imâm Abû Yûsuf and Imâm Muhammad Sheybânî, two greatest disciples of Imâm A’zam Abû Hanîfa. – 106 –

than half of a person’s limbs of ablution and/or ghusl is sore, he makes a tayammum (instead of an ablution and/or ghusl). If the parts that are sore covers an area half of the limbs (of ablution and/or ghusl), then he washes the healthy parts and makes masah on the sore parts; if the masah will cause harm to the sore parts, then he makes masah on the bandages. If this also will cause harm, then he does not make masah, either. If there is a sore on his head, so that masah will cause harm, he will be absolved from (having to make) masah. Supposing there are cuts on the places that are farz to wash (when making an ablution) of both hands of a person whose face is sore, too; then that person will not be able to make a tayammum; so he performs namâz without an ablution, and will not have to reperform the namâz performed. If his face is healthy, he has his face washed. If he does not have a helper he rubs his face (gently) on soil. If one of the hands of a healthy person is apoplectic or wounded or cut or crippled, he makes an ablution with his other hand. If his both hands are so, he rubs his face on soil. If the bandage or piece of wood or ointment or plaster cast applied perforce on a sore or abscessed or broken limb for treatment and protection cannot be removed and so that part of the limb cannot be washed or made masah on, masah is made on the major part of its surface and on the healthy skin in between. If possible, it is necessary to remove the bandage or the piece of wood or the ointment or the plaster cast, make masah on the problematic area, and wash the healthy area of the skin. These things do not necessarily have to be applied after making an ablution; nor is there a deadline for their usage. It is permissible to wash the healthy foot and make masah on the bandage on the other one. If the thing put on it falls off before the injury heals, the ablution will not become nullified. Nor will it become nullified if the bandage is changed after masah has been made on it. If the ointment applied on a broken or injured nail or on a cut on one’s foot should not be removed because it will be harmful to remove it, one has been involved in an impasse called ‘quandary’, in which case one washes the outer part of the ointment. In case washing may be harmful, one makes masah on it. If masah may be harmful, too, then one does not make masah, either. [Since the same rule applies in the other three Madhhabs as well, it is out of the question to imitate another Madhhab.] That this ointment is like a splint is written in the book entitled Ibni ’Âbidîn. However, having one’s teeth filled or crowned is quite a different matter. For, it is possible to imitate Mâlikî or Shâfi’î Madhhab. If a person loses his – 107 –

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