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Miftah-ul-Janna (Booklet for way to Paradise)

weather iftâr

weather iftâr should not be made, (i.e. fast should not be broken,) unless one is convinced that the Sun has set, even if the azân (to annouce the time of evening prayer [and that of iftâr]) has been performed, (i.e. called.) As long as one makes iftâr before the (time called) ishtibâk-un-nujûm, i.e. by the time most of the stars appear in the sky, one has carried out the act of mustahab called ‘ta’jîl’ (and which means ‘making haste for the iftâr). When sunset is observed and iftâr is made at a certain location, a person who is at an elevated place, e.g. one who is on a minaret, should not make iftâr unless he knows that the Sun has set. This rule applies also to morning prayer and sahûr.” In the tabulated lists of Tamkin in books of Astronomy, height is one of the variables of the length of time called tamkin, (which is defined and explained in detail in the tenth chapter of the fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss.) As all prayer times are being calculated, a single time of tamkin is used for a certain location, i.e. the time of tamkin commensurate with the highest place of that location. (Please see appendix V of the fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss for the table of tamkins.) Calendars prepared without the periods of tamkin being taken into account provide sunset times a few minutes earlier (than times of sunset in the calculation of which the periods of tamkin has been taken into consideration). The Sun does not appear to have set at the time of sunset (written on those calendars). Fast performed by people who make iftâr in keeping with calendars without tamkins becomes fasid.] THERE ARE THREE CONDITIONS (to be fulfilled) FOR (the performance of) QURBÂN: 1. To be a discreet and pubescent Muslim. 2. To be muqîm (settled, i.e. not to be safarî). 3. To possess property sufficient to fulfil the amount of nisâb. The rukn (fundamental principle) for (the animal to be killed as the) Qurbân being a sheep or a goat or a camel or a bovine animal (like a bull or a cow or an oxe), a camel or a bull (or cow or oxe) passes for seven qurbâns, which means that seven people may have an ox (or bull or cow) killed as the qurbân for all seven of them. If another person says, “Let me join you,” that eighth person’s qurbân becomes fâsid (null and void). The nisâb for Qurbân is the same for the nisâb for Fitra, (which is dealt with in detail in the third chapter of the fifth fascicle of Endless Bliss.) – 210 –

[As is stated by Ibni ’Âbidîn ‘rahima-hullâhu ta’âlâ’, if the share of any one of them is less than one-seventh, none of the seven people’s qurbâns will be permissible. Therefore, it is permissible for fewer than seven people to come together for the common qurbân. It is sahîh (valid) to participate during the purchase. Although it is sahîh to participate after the purchase as well, it is better to participate before the purchase. A person may perform Qurbân in partnership with another person by buying from one-seventh to six-sevenths of the bull (or cow or ox) owned by the latter. They share the meat in direct ratio to the partners’ shares. If one of the partners dies, it will be sahîh if his heirs says (to the other partners), “Perform the Qurbân on his behalf and on your own behalves.” For, it is (an act of) Qurbat to perform the Qurbân on behalf of a dead Muslim. If the heirs do not say so, the dead partner’s qurbân will not be Qurbat and none of the partners’ qurbâns will be sahîh. If one of the partners is a disbeliever or if he joined the partnership (only) for the meat, none of the partners’ qurbâns will be permissible. For, each partner has to make niyyat for Qurbat. A disbeliever’s niyyat is bâtil (null and void). To make one’s niyyat for eating, on the other hand, is not (an act of) Qurbat. Likewise, if one of the partners makes niyyat for the current year’s Qurbân and the others make niyyat for the next year’s Qurbân, the others’ niyyat is bâtil (null and void) and the meat that falls to their shares becomes tetawwu’ [alms], and they have to dispense it as alms to the poor. The niyyat made by the first one is sahîh (valid), but then he cannot eat the meat. For, the judgment that the meat has to be dispensed as alms has spread throughout the meat. The Qurbat for which niyyat is made does not necessarily have to be a Qurbat that is wâjib. It might as well be a Qurbat that is sunnat or nâfila. It might as well be a Qurbat consisting of various acts of wâjib. It is permissible as well for it to be an ’Aqîqa for a child or an adult. (Please see the final paragraph of the fourth chapter of the fifth fascicle of Endless Bliss for ’Aqiqa.) For, ’Aqîqa is a Qurbat performed as a thanksoffering for having been blessed with a newborn baby. As well, a congregate dining where Muslims are entertained to celebrate the performance of a nikâh (marriage contract made in a manner dictated by Islam, and which is explained in detail in the twelfth chapter of the fifth fascicle of Endless Bliss), is a kind of thanksoffering and a Qurbat that is sunnat. The most meritorious thing to do is for all the partners to make their niyyat for the Qurbân of ’Iyd. To kill an animal for ’Aqîqa is not an act of sunnat in the Hanafî Madhhab. It is – 211 –

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