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9 months ago

Miftah-ul-Janna (Booklet for way to Paradise)

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although it has to be done before its prescribed time is over, you have to do it even at the cost of having done something with kerâhat. Please see ‘times of kerâhat’ towards the end of the tenth chapter of the fourth fascicle of Endless Bliss.) A kind of fasting that is never permissible is one which is performed by making niyyat like this: “I make niyyat for fasting if the month (we are in) is Ramadân; if not, I am without a niyyat.” Supposing a person does not make niyyat for fasting till after fajr, i.e. till after whiteness appears on the eastern horizon, in Ramadân, and eats something before noon; this person does not have to make kaffârat, (which means to fast for sixty days running after Ramadân,) according to Imâm A’zam Abû Hanîfa. According to the Imâmeyn, however, this person has to make kaffârat. For, he has eaten while it was possible for him to make niyyat and perform his fasting. If he eats in the afternoon, he does not have to make kaffârat – according to the unanimous ijtihâd. Supposing a person violated the latest two or three months of Ramadân, breaking his fast prematurely once in each of the blessed months, does he have to make kaffârat for each violation separately, or will it be sufficient to make kaffârat once for all two or three violations? This matter is controversial (among Islamic scholars). It will be prudent to make kaffârat for each violation separately. Supposing a person has debt(s) of fast belonging to Ramadân; according to some scholarly statements, that person becomes sinful if one year elapses and that person still has not paid his debt(s) by fasting for the day(s) owed. Supposing the time of one of the two yearly ’Iyds, i.e. the ’Iyd of Ramadân-i-sherîf or the ’Iyd of Qurbân, comes as a person makes kaffârat, i.e. as he performs the successive sixty-day fasting for kaffârat, –as is known, it is harâm to fast on the days of ’Iyd, whatsoever the reason for fasting–, he will have to resume his fasting for kaffârat from the beginning. His former fasts will not be added (so as to complement the sixty-day fasting). If a person breaks his fast without having made his niyyat for a safar (long-distance journey) and thereafter makes his niyyat for a safar and leaves, he will have to make both qadâ and kaffârat, (i.e. he will have to fast for that one day of violated fast and also for sixty successive days for the penalty called kaffârat.) A longdistance journey does not make it mubâh (an allowed act) to break a fast. When a person leaves for a safar, it is wâjib for him not to break his fast during that day. If a musâfir makes his niyyat (for – 206 –

fasting) by night or any time before the time called Dahwa-ikubrâ, it is not halâl for him to break his fast during that day. If he breaks his fast, he will only have to make qadâ of it, (i.e. he will have to fast for one day after the blessed month of Ramadân.) What a long-distance journey makes mubâh is: ‘not to start a (daily) fast’. If a person loses his mind during Ramadân, so that he cannot fast, and recovers afterwards, he makes qadâ of the days whereon he failed to fast. If he does not recover throughout Ramadân, so that his mental disorder lingers, then he becomes absolved from that Ramadân’s fast. If a person forgets that he is observing fast and breaks his fast, his fast does not become fâsid (nullified). If he remembers that he is observing fast but goes on eating because he thinks that his fast has become fâsid, then he will have to make qadâ of it (after Ramadân). Kaffârat will not be necessary. However, if he goes on eating although he knows that his fast has not become fâsid, then he will have to make both qadâ and kaffârat. If a fasting person swallows his own sweat or chews a dyed piece of string and then swallows the dye on it or swallows someone else’s saliva or swallows his own saliva after having let it leave his mouth or swallows a food remain between his teeth and bigger than a chickpea or injects himself with a hypodermic medicine, his fast becomes nullified and he will only have to make qadâ. If a person eats a piece of paper or a handful of salt or swallows a grain of raw wheat or rice, his fast becomes nullified. However, he will only have to make qadâ. For, it is not customary to eat a handful of salt, neither as food, nor as medicine. It is like a handful of soil. On the other hand, if the salt eaten is a small amount, then kaffârat also will be necessary. This is written in the book entitled Eshbâh. For, a small amount of salt is used both as food and as medicine. If a worker knows that he will fall ill as he works for a living, it (still) is not permissible for him to break his fast before he becomes ill. If he breaks his fast (before the time of iftâr), he will have to make kaffârat. To avoid (having to make) kaffârat, he should swallow a piece of paper first, (i.e. before eating something.) If a pregnant woman or a breastfeeding woman feels too weak (–with hunger, thirst, etc.– to go the distance with her fasting) eats (or drinks), she will only have to make qadâ. A person – 207 –

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