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Handbook of Propagation Effects for Vehicular and ... - Courses

Handbook of Propagation Effects for Vehicular and ... - Courses

5.6 Summary

5.6 Summary of Fade Duration Results______________________________________ 5-8 5.7 Cumulative Distributions of Non-Fade Durations: Australian Measurements__ 5-10 5.8 Cumulative Distributions of Non-Fade Duration: Central Maryland _________ 5-11 5.9 Cumulative Distributions of Phase Fluctuations: Australian Measurements ___ 5-11 5.10 Summary and Recommendations ____________________________________ 5-14 5.11 References _______________________________________________________ 5-14 6 Polarization, Antenna Gain and Diversity Considerations __________________ 6-1 6.1 Background _________________________________________________________ 6-1 6.2 Depolarization Effects_________________________________________________ 6-1 6.3 Distributions from Low- and High-Gain Receiving Antennas ________________ 6-2 6.4 Fade Reduction Due to Lane Diversity ___________________________________ 6-4 6.5 Antenna Separation Diversity Gain______________________________________ 6-7 6.6 Satellite Diversity____________________________________________________ 6-12 6.7 Conclusions and Recommendations_____________________________________ 6-16 6.8 References _________________________________________________________ 6-16 7 Investigations from Different Countries _________________________________ 7-1 7.1 Background _________________________________________________________ 7-1 7.2 Measurements in Australia_____________________________________________ 7-1 7.3 Belgium (PROSAT Experiment) ________________________________________ 7-6 7.4 Measurements in Canada ______________________________________________ 7-6 7.5 Measurements in England _____________________________________________ 7-8 7.6 France and Germany: European K-Band Campaign ______________________ 7-13 7.7 Measurements in Japan ______________________________________________ 7-14 7.8 Measurements Performed in the United States ___________________________ 7-16 7.9 Summary Comments and Recommendations_____________________________ 7-26 7.10 References _______________________________________________________ 7-27 8 Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects Inside Buildings ______________________ 8-1 8.1 Background _________________________________________________________ 8-1 8.2 Satellite Radio Reception Inside Buildings from 700 MHz to 1800 MHz________ 8-2 8.3 Slant-Path Building Penetration Measurements at L- and S-Band ___________ 8-12 8.4 Slant-Path Building Attenuation Measurements from 0.5 to 3 GHz __________ 8-21 8.5 Building Attenuation at UHF, L- and S-Band Via Earth-Satellite Measurements8-29 8.6 Attenuation of 900 MHz Radio Waves by Metal Building __________________ 8-31 8.7 Summary and Concluding Remarks ____________________________________ 8-31 8.8 References _________________________________________________________ 8-34 9 Maritime-Mobile Satellite Propagation Effects ___________________________ 9-1 9.1 Introduction _________________________________________________________ 9-1 9.2 Early Multipath Experiments __________________________________________ 9-1 9.3 Characteristics of Multipath Fading Due to Sea Surface Reflection ___________ 9-3 9.4 Model of Fade Durations Due to Sea Reflections __________________________ 9-13 9.5 Multipath from Rough Seas and Frequency Dependence on Multipath Fading_ 9-20 9.6 Other Maritime Investigations_________________________________________ 9-22 9.7 Summary and Recommendations ______________________________________ 9-23 9.8 References _________________________________________________________ 9-24 ii

10 Optical Methods for Assessing Fade Margins ___________________________ 10-1 10.1 Background ______________________________________________________ 10-1 10.2 General Methodology ______________________________________________ 10-2 10.3 Skyline Statistics of Austin and San Antonio, Texas _____________________ 10-3 10.4 Clear, Shadowed and Blocked Propagation States ______________________ 10-5 10.5 Urban Three-State Fade Model (UTSFM) _____________________________ 10-8 10.6 Estimation of Urban Fading for the Globalstar Constellation _____________ 10-9 10.7 Statistics of Potentially Visible Satellites in Various States_______________ 10-11 10.8 Satellite Diversity ________________________________________________ 10-13 10.9 Summary Comments and Recommendations__________________________ 10-17 10.10 References ______________________________________________________ 10-18 11 Theoretical Modeling Considerations__________________________________ 11-1 11.1 Background ______________________________________________________ 11-1 11.2 Background Information Associated with Model Development____________ 11-2 11.3 Empirical Regression Models________________________________________ 11-4 11.4 Probability Distribution Models ____________________________________ 11-10 11.5 Geometric Analytic Models ________________________________________ 11-23 11.6 Summary and Recommendations ___________________________________ 11-30 11.7 References ______________________________________________________ 11-31 12 Summary of Recommendations_______________________________________ 12-1 12.1 Introduction (Chapter 1) ___________________________________________ 12-1 12.2 Average Foliage Attenuation Due to Trees: Static Case (Chapter 2)________ 12-1 12.3 Attenuation Due to Roadside Trees: Mobile Case (Chapter 3)_____________ 12-2 12.4 Signal Degradation for Line-of-Sight Communications (Chapter 4) ________ 12-5 12.5 Fade and Non-Fade Durations and Phase Spreads (Chapter 5)____________ 12-6 12.6 Polarization, Antenna Gain and Diversity Considerations (Chapter 6) _____ 12-8 12.7 Investigations from Different Countries (Chapter 7) ___________________ 12-11 12.8 Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects Inside Buildings (Chapter 8) _________ 12-13 12.9 Maritime-Mobile Satellite Propagation Effects (Chapter 9)______________ 12-15 12.10 Optical Methods for Assessing Fade Margins for Shadowing, Blockage, and Clear Line-of-Sight Conditions (Chapter 10)______________________________________ 12-18 12.11 Theoretical Modeling Considerations (Chapter 11) ____________________ 12-20 Index iii

  • Page 1: A2A-98-U-0-021 (APL) EERL-98-12A (E
  • Page 5: Table of Contents 1 Introduction __
  • Page 11: Table of Contents 1 Introduction __
  • Page 14 and 15: 1-2 Propagation Effects for Vehicul
  • Page 16 and 17: 1-4 Propagation Effects for Vehicul
  • Page 18 and 19: 1-6 Propagation Effects for Vehicul
  • Page 21 and 22: Table of Contents 2 Attenuation Due
  • Page 23 and 24: Chapter 2 Attenuation Due to Trees:
  • Page 25 and 26: Attenuation Due to Trees: Static Ca
  • Page 27 and 28: Attenuation Due to Trees: Static Ca
  • Page 29 and 30: Attenuation Due to Trees: Static Ca
  • Page 31 and 32: Attenuation Due to Trees: Static Ca
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  • Page 35 and 36: Attenuation Due to Trees: Static Ca
  • Page 37 and 38: Attenuation Due to Trees: Static Ca
  • Page 39: Attenuation Due to Trees: Static Ca
  • Page 43 and 44: Table of Contents 3 Attenuation Due
  • Page 45: Figure 3-23: Fade distributions at
  • Page 48 and 49: 3-2 Propagation Effects for Vehicul
  • Page 50 and 51: 3-4 Relative Signal Level (dB) 5 0
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    3-10 Percent of Distance the Fade >

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    3-12 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    3-14 3.4.3 Austin, Texas at K-Band

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    3-16 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    3-18 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    3-20 Relative Signal Level (dB) 5 0

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    3-22 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    3-24 Percentage of Distance Fade >

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    3-26 and where 1 2 Propagation Effe

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    3-28 Percentage of the Time Fade >

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    3-30 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    3-32 3.7.5 Comparative Summary of M

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    3-34 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    Chapter 4 Signal Degradation for Li

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    Table of Tables Table 4-1: Summary

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    4-2 Propagation Effects for Vehicul

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    4-4 Percentage of Distance Fade > A

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    4-6 Propagation Effects for Vehicul

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    4-8 Percentage of Distance Fade > A

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    4-10 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    4-12 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    4-14 Percentage of Distance or Time

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    4-16 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    Table of Contents 5 Fade and Non-Fa

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    Chapter 5 Fade and Non-Fade Duratio

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    Fade and Non-Fade Durations and Pha

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    Fade and Non-Fade Durations and Pha

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    Fade and Non-Fade Durations and Pha

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    Fade and Non-Fade Durations and Pha

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    Fade and Non-Fade Durations and Pha

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    Fade and Non-Fade Durations and Pha

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    Fade and Non-Fade Durations and Pha

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    Table of Contents 6 Polarization, A

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    Chapter 6 Polarization, Antenna Gai

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    Polarization, Antenna Gain and Dive

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    Polarization, Antenna Gain and Dive

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    Polarization, Antenna Gain and Dive

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    Polarization, Antenna Gain and Dive

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    Polarization, Antenna Gain and Dive

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    Polarization, Antenna Gain and Dive

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    Polarization, Antenna Gain and Dive

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    Polarization, Antenna Gain and Dive

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    Table of Contents 7 Investigations

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    was derived from measurements over

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    7-2 Propagation Effects for Vehicul

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    7-4 Percentage of Distance Fade > A

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    7-6 7.3 Belgium (PROSAT Experiment)

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    7-8 Percentage of Distance Fade > A

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    7-10 Probability Fade > Abscissa (%

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    7-12 Percentage of Distance Fade >

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    7-14 Percentage of Time Fade > Absc

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    7-16 Percentage of Distance Fade >

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    7-18 Percentage of Distance Fade >

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    7-20 Percentage of Distance Fade >

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    7-22 Percentage of Distance Fade >

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    7-24 Probability (%) > Abscissa 100

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    7-26 Percentage of Distance Fade >

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    7-28 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    Chapter 8 Earth-Satellite Propagati

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    Table of Figures Figure 8-1: Maximu

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    Chapter 8 Earth-Satellite Propagati

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Earth-Satellite Propagation Effects

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    Chapter 9 Maritime-Mobile Satellite

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    Figure 9-7: Fading depth versus pat

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    9-2 Propagation Effects for Vehicul

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    9-4 Propagation Effects for Vehicul

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    9-6 Roughness Parameter, u (Rad) 28

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    9-8 Cθ = ( θo − 7) / 2 dB for

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    9-10 Fading Depth (dB) 6 5 4 3 2 1

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    9-12 Fading Depth (dB) 6 5 4 3 2 1

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    9-14 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    9-16 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    9-18 Mean Fade Occurrence Interval,

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    9-20 Mean Fade Duration, T D (sec)

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    9-22 Fade Depth (dB) 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.

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    9-24 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    9-26 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

  • Page 255 and 256:

    Table of Contents 10 Optical Method

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    Chapter 10 Optical Methods for Asse

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    Optical Methods for Assessing Fade

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    Optical Methods for Assessing Fade

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    Optical Methods for Assessing Fade

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    Optical Methods for Assessing Fade

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    Optical Methods for Assessing Fade

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    Optical Methods for Assessing Fade

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    Optical Methods for Assessing Fade

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    Optical Methods for Assessing Fade

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    Optical Methods for Assessing Fade

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    Table of Contents 11 Theoretical Mo

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    Chapter 11 Theoretical Modeling Con

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Theoretical Modeling Considerations

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    Table of Contents 12 Summary of Rec

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    Table 12-7: Tabulation of azimuth a

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    12-2 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    12-4 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    12-6 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    12-8 Propagation Effects for Vehicu

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    12-10 12.6.5 Satellite Diversity Pr

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    12-12 Propagation Effects for Vehic

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    12-14 Standard Deviation (dB) 4 3 2

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    12-16 Propagation Effects for Vehic

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    12-18 Fade Depth (dB) 7.0 6.5 6.0 5

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    12-20 Propagation Effects for Vehic

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    12-22 Propagation Effects for Vehic

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    Index 13-1 Index 2 2-state Markov m

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    Index 13-3 Jongejans, A. et al., 3-

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