3G0 chronicles, too, mention Nalaiyam or }alaiyakam (Kera.a) among the places from which settlers went to the is1axid 1taru.k1r, in Ker4a, is mentioned inthe Vaiy, Vaiy5pa1, car-kalveu andthe Tiri-kcal puram as the home of some ofthe settlers inthe Vanni districs The tradition that they came from Marufk'tr was current among the Vaniyars even inthe nineteenth century. J.PLLewis records this tradition inthe followin manner:- The Tamil Vaiyas are descendants of Vai chiefs. The local exp'anation ofthe originof this caste is that they are descendants ofthe chiefs (Palaya aus) who ca e over from Murithkr in India, and became rulers ofthe Vai. 3 The na e 1uru.kUr is evidently a corruption of ruikr. Further, the Mukkuva mercenaries who figure prominently inthe Na akkajappu-m iyam a ong the soldiers of Ngha were from Ker4a, as we shall see presently. Apart from theindication that the place names provide about the original home ofthe new settlers, the absence of Sinhalese elements inthe majority ofthe names may mean that the occu ation ofthe Vanni regions of northern 1. See upra, p. Zio 2. See upra, ,'. 2.D 3. J.P.Lewis, Nanual ofthe Van i Di tricts, p. 7.
361 Ceylon by theDravidians was not as peaceful as it a ears to have been inthe case oftheJaffna peninsula. In these res ects the p1 ce na es ofthe Vanni areas preserve valuable information that may well o a long way in confirming the statem nts inthe Sinhalese sources that 1gha's army consited of many Ker4as, that these mercenaries occupied several villages and were settled here andthere in Rjaratha and that their occupation was far from peaceful. The caution that we have to exercise inthe use of to onymic materials which still await a proper examination prevents us from drawing any definite conclusions. But it should be stated that the evidence ofthese names and that ofthe literary sources point inthe same direction. The archaeolo ical material, thou h disappointingly small, also seems to confirm some ofthe above points. In the Tamil Vanni districts only a few Dravidian-style aiva temples ofthe thirteenth century have been foun , Among these the temples at Tirukkvil, Kapuralla,and Nallatai-iakk - 1 Saiva remains at Uruttirapurani and Kuruntanr are notable. m andthe These certainly indicate the existence of Tamul settlements in those places inthe thirteenth century. But monumental 1. S.Paranavitana, 'Archaeolo ical Summary', C.J.Sc. II, p.160-i 1; A.S.C.A. . for 1933, p. 19 ; A.S.C.A.R. for 1907, p. 27 ; A.S.C.A. . for 195 , p. 0.