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POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY TN

possible. Even some of

possible. Even some of the marginal and small farmers seek jobs outside their farms as they area able to cultivate in only one season. Table 5.15: Total Agricultural Workers (Million) Details 1981 1991 2001 Annual Growth rate (%) Agricultural Workers 12.59 14.8 13.76 1981-1991:1.63 1991-2001: -0.73 Source: Census of India, 2001. Table 5.16, based on National Sample Survey (NSS) data shows that the largest workforce was in the primary sector, but its share has been falling since 1993-94. The share of secondary and tertiary sector has increased. The primary sector accounted for 57.9 percent of total employment in 1983. This share fell to 40.5 percent in 2004. During this period, the share of workforce in the manufacturing sector increased from 20.4 percent to 28.2 percent. The share of the tertiary sector also increased from 21.7 percent in 1983 to 31.3 percent in 2004. The main policy challenge is therefore to absorb the workforce released from agriculture in the tertiary sector. This would call for strategies for education and training. Adequate investment in these would lead to a quantum jump in the level of human development as people are employed with higher educational qualifications will earn higher per capita incomes in the fast growing tertiary sector. Table 5.16: Sectoral Profile of Employment (Millions) Year Primary Secondary Tertiary Total 1983 13.9 (57.9) 4.9 (20.4) 5.2 (21.7) 24.0 (100) 1987-88 13.9 (53.7) 5.9 (22.8) 6.0 (23.2) 25.9 (100) 1993-94 15.4 (54.0) 6.2 (21.8) 6.9 (24.2) 28.5 (100) 1999-00 14.6 (50.3) 6.9 (23.8) 7.5 (25.9) 29.0 (100) 2004 11.9 (40.5) 8.3 (28.2) 9.2 (31.3) 29.4 (100) Note: Computed based on NSS Usual (Principal + Subsidiary) Status data. Figures in parentheses are percent share. c. Labour Productivity in Primary Sector Table 5.17 highlights sectoral labour productivity by relating the work force and gross value added (GVA) per worker for the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. The labour productivity (output per worker as measured by gross value added (GVA) per capita) in the primary sector with GVA at Rs. 10593 in 2004 is nearly 5 times as low as in the tertiary sector with GVA per capita of Rs. 57491 and that in the secondary sector is 116

nearly 3.5 times as high as the primary sector. During 1983 to 2004, the labour productivity increased only from Rs. 5888 to Rs.10593 (1993-94 prices) in the primary sector. It increased from Rs. 21922 to Rs. 34597 in the secondary and from Rs. 24550 to Rs. 57491 in the tertiary sector. During 1993-94 to 2004, the GVA in the primary sector increased at 1.4 percent while employment (-2.37 percent) registered negative growth. Table 5.17: Employment and Labour Productivity in Various Sectors Sectors Indicators 1983 1987- 88 1993- 94 1999- 00 2004 Growth Rates (%) 1983 to 1993-94 1993- to 2004 94 Primary Employment 13.9 13.9 15.4 14.6 11.9 1.08 -2.37 GVAper capita 5888 6625 9263 10616 10593 4.64 1.35 Secondary Employment 4.9 5.9 6.2 6.9 8.3 2.41 2.96 GVA per capita 21922 21054 31274 41006 35497 3.62 1.27 Tertiary Employment 5.2 6 6.9 7.5 9.2 2.77 2.91 GVA per capita 24550 29559 34630 54375 57491 3.5 5.20 Total Employment 24 25.9 28.5 29 29.4 1.75 0.31 GVA per capita 13205 15199 20193 29164 32299 4.34 4.81 Source (Basic Data): Central Statistical Organisation, National Sample Survey and EPW Research Foundation (for GSDP figures 1983 and 1987-88). Note: Employment in millions and gross value added (GVA) in Rs. (1993-94 prices). d. Waste Land Tamil Nadu has 17303.29 sq. km of its land designated as wastelands, which is about 13.3 percent of total geographical area of the state (Vencatesan, 2006). In 2006-07, the State Government implemented a scheme “Distribution of Two Acre Wastelands to Landless Poor Agricultural Labour Families”. The major objectives of the scheme are to empower landless agricultural labour households through distribution of entitlements on government wastelands to them, and to develop both government and private wastelands into cultivable lands. The entitlement on Government poramboke lands will be distributed to landless agricultural labour households and the entitlements on Government poramboke wastelands under encroachment by farmers will be accorded to the existing occupants. Private patta wastelands of small and marginal farmers will be developed and made suitable for cultivation and this shall be done either as individual fields or as a cluster of fields. Tamil Nadu Watershed Development Agency is implementing this scheme, dovetailing various schemes for development of land, irrigation, and agricultural production in the Departments of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Rural Development. Soil 117

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