11 months ago


down by a small margin

down by a small margin considering all the sectors together. This is primarily due to the fall in their participation in the secondary sector. In the primary sector the share of female work force in the total work force as remained almost the same and in the tertiary sector the female participation rate has increased. Table 1.14: Gender Composition of Work Force Details 1993-94 1999-00 2004-05 Female Work Force (in Lakh) Primary 75.28 67.40 61.86 Secondary 21.27 22.03 27.80 Tertiary 15.34 17.97 24.46 Total 111.89 107.40 114.12 Total Work Force (in Lakh) Primary 154.81 145.61 127.42 Secondary 62.43 68.53 84.87 Tertiary 68.36 75.56 94.37 Total 285.60 289.70 306.66 Share of Female in Total Work Force (in Percent) Primary 48.63 46.29 48.55 Secondary 34.07 32.15 32.76 Tertiary 22.44 23.78 25.92 Total 39.18 37.07 37.21 Source: Government of Tamil Nadu (2008), Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-08. Gender-related Development Index (GDI) or Gender Equality Index (GEI) that is estimated as a proportion of economic, educational and health attainments of females to that of males for Tamil Nadu, indicates that the status of women had considerably improved between early eighties and early nineties ( Appendix Table 1.7 ). Among the 15 major states, Tamil Nadu ranks second next only after Kerala in GEI. This summary measure also indicates that the gender bias in Tamil Nadu state is very low as compared to all-India. It has been noted in the literature that India has one of the highest proportions of malnourished women in developed countries (see for example, Jose and Navaneetham, 2008). Women’s malnourished also increases the risk maternal mortality apart from being essential for a person’s wellbeing and human development. Based on national family health survey data (NFHS-3, 2005-06), Jose and Navaneetham provide an inter-state perspective on women’s malnutrition. They look at body mass index (BMI), chronic energy deficiency (CED) and incidence of anemia (iron deficiency) to indicate the 18

status of malnutrition. The accepted norms for these indicators are as follows. BMI of less than 18.5 is referred to chronic energy deficiency. BMI above 25.0 and 30.0 refer to over weight and obesity, which are also indicative of poor nutrition. Iron deficiency anemia is indicated by 11.9 grams/deciliter of haemoglobin in the blood. Haemoglobin below 9.0 and 7.0 grams/deciliter denotes moderate and server anemia. Table 1.15 shows the status of Tamil Nadu women with regard to malnutrition as compared to other selected states and all-India figures. It is indicated that about 28.4 percent of women suffer from chronic energy deficiency in Tamil Nadu. This is higher than Kerala and Punjab but still below most other states and all-India figure. In Tamil Nadu more women are over weight or obese (20.9 percent) as compared to all-India figure of 12.6 percent. Percent of women suffering from anemia in Tamil Nadu is 53.2, which is quite high compared to Kerala and Punjab and is close to the all-India figure. Thus, while Tamil Nadu’s position is relatively better compared to the all-India figures in terms of basic norms, still considerable ground had to be covered. Table 1.15: Women’s Malnutrition across Major States in India: 2005-06 (Percent) States CED BMI Anemia CED and Anemia Overweight or Moderate or Any Both Either Neither Obese Severe Kerala 18.0 28.1 7.1 32.8 7.6 35.5 56.9 Tamil Nadu 28.4 20.9 15.8 53.2 16.7 47.9 35.3 Andhra Pradesh 33.5 15.6 23.9 62.9 22.5 51.3 26.2 Karnataka 35.5 15.3 17.1 51.5 19.8 46.9 33.3 India 35.6 12.6 16.8 55.3 21.6 47.5 30.9 Source: Jose and Navaneetham (2008). Notes: Computed using NFHS-3 data; CED: Chronic energy deficiency and BMI: Body mass index Details about selected other states and a related table on malnutrition among Ever-Married Women are given as Appendix Tables 1.8 and 1.9. d. Millennium Development Goals and Health Status Indicators in Tamil Nadu Goals four to six relate to health. Specifically, Goal 4 relates to reducing child mortality; Goal 5 focuses on improving maternal health and Goal 6 relates to halting growth of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. 19

World Comparative Economic And Social Data
Police Stations - Tamil Nadu Police
Nammakal - Tamil Nadu Police
N u m b e r o f S c h o o l s - DISE
Census 2011 population of Latur district
PDF: 1.0MB - Population Reference Bureau