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Managing and developing

Managing and developing water resources, in the context of its heavy demand from agriculture as well as industry and providing drinking water of acceptable quality and adequate quantity are of critical importance for an MDGs-based strategy of poverty reduction in Tamil Nadu. In the following Chapter we look at strategies to bring in the marginalized sections of the society who have been by passed by the process of growth and targeting of the various measures to uplift these magninalies population. 126

Chapter 6 LAST MILE REACH STRATEGIES While economic growth uplifts some of the existing poor above the poverty line and reduces the depth of poverty for the remaining poor, there still remains a section of the poor who are bypassed by the growth processes or get only marginal benefits. Their ability to participate and benefit from the broad macro forces and fiscal interventions including education and health is constrained due to access costs, participation barriers, and other initial disadvantages. For this section of population, inclusion and reach has to be brought out by specially designed policy interventions. In this Chapter, we look at issues of improving allocative efficiency by reorienting allocations to the neediest and most disadvantaged districts and blocks and/or sections of society so as to augment the poverty-reducing impact of a large number of specialised programmes. This Chapter discusses strategies to maximize the benefits of the plethora of central and centrally sponsored schemes at the state level. Economists who favour using targeting of selected expenditure programmes argue that attempts to identify the poor and targeting benefits to them can serve important re-distributive and safety net roles in a market economy (World Bank, 1990; Lipton and Ravallion, 1995). Grosh (1995, p. 465) has observed: “targeted programs have much more incidence than general price subsidies”, and (p. 466): “on an average targeted programs also have more progressive incidence than public primary health and public primary education services, although there is a good deal of overlap in the ranges”. Chaudhuri and Ravallion (1994) from their study of longitudinal data on 103 households in three villages over 1976-1983 with a view to deriving implications for targeting in the case of the chronically poor, arrived at the following conclusions: i. Current income generally dominates all other measures for all budgets in identifying the chronically income poor. At low budget levels it is also better at identifying those who are chronically poor in terms of their mean consumption. ii. At the lower end of the budgets considered, current food expenditure per person is worse than any of the other consumption or income measures. But at the upper end it performs better than most. 127

World Comparative Economic And Social Data
Police Stations - Tamil Nadu Police
Nammakal - Tamil Nadu Police
N u m b e r o f S c h o o l s - DISE
Census 2011 population of Latur district
PDF: 1.0MB - Population Reference Bureau