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POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY TN

which was in operation

which was in operation since 1985. The new scheme extends coverage to all the food crops as well as oilseeds, commercial and horticultural crops. The premium rates vary from 1.5 to 3.5 percent of the sum insured depending on the crops. There are actuarial rates for the commercial and horticultural crops. Small and marginal farmers are entitled to a subsidy of 50 percent of the premium charged from them to be shared on 50:50 basis by the central and the state governments. At present this scheme is being implemented by 21 states and 2 Union Territories. A Pilot Seed Crop Insurance Scheme was also introduced from the Rabi season of 1999-00 to protect seed growers in the event of failure of a seed crop. This scheme is currently in operation in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The seed crops of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar, bajra, gram, red gram, ground nut, soyabean, sunflower and cotton are covered. c. Direct Cash Transfer Schemes Many economists argue that it is more efficient to introduce direct cash transfers to poor. Such schemes have been introduced in Mexico and Brazil. These schemes can be made conditional on the families satisfying certain criteria like children going to school or receiving basic immunization vaccinations. There are mixed views about the role of conditionalties in direct cash transfer schemes as they require follow-ups and monitoring, and as such additional administrative costs. One argument against cash transfer has been that they induce dependence. However, income supplements are very effective in the case of the extremely poor. These schemes can be implemented for the poorest and the most disadvantaged sections of the society. It is suggested here that for the extremely poor, direct cash transfer in the form of ‘social income’ may be administered to the first two deciles of the BPL population in the rural areas. It is important that the extremely poor have some minimum income to start with because of the need for meeting access cost and overcoming participation barriers to avail the benefit of other services provided by the government for health and education As noted in Table 6.4, the extent of leakage is nil up to the first two deciles of the BPL population. As a second check, the identified beneficiary may be endorsed by the village Panchayat. The amount of income may be determined by the number of male members including children multiplied by half the state-specific price adjusted poverty line (per person per month) and number of female members multiplied by the full amount of this poverty line (this is illustrative only). The money should be transferred on- 146

line to post-office saving banks or rural banks or as a last resort through money orders direct to the household head. d. Schemes for Providing Income Generating Assets One income generating asset capable of producing income in the dwelling itself may be provided to any BPL family that asks for it. Such as asset can be operated by any member of the family in spare time and can provide valuable supplementary income for the family. Such an asset should require minimum maintenance. Recently in Rajasthan a scheme of providing electricity generating charkha (e-charkha) has been introduced successfully. The e-charkha is an improvised version of Ambar Charkha designed by Ekambarnath who hailed from Tamil Nadu. The e-charkha is used for making yarn as well as for lighting a bulb or producing moderate amount of electricity. The charkha has equipment to store electricity in its attachment to light up a room for 8 hours. Using the charkha Rs. 30- 45 can be earned by spinning the yarn. The e-charkha costs only Rs. 8500 and the attachment for producing electricity cost Rs. 1500. A good part of these can be subsidised by the state government. 6.6 Role of Local Governments in Poverty Reduction The essence of decentralisation is to transfer functions, finance and functionaries to the local bodies. This facilitates policy formulation and implementation according to local needs and priorities leading to more efficient use of resources and delivery of services. After the enactment of the 73 rd and the 74 th Amendment of the Constitution for empowerment of rural and urban local bodies, the responsibility for elementary education was transferred to the gram panchayats and municipal corporations. Tamil Nadu already had a decentralised system of education service delivery even before the constitutional amendment came into force. There is also community participation in school education through village education committees. Teachers were under the control of local bodies, who paid their salaries, utilising grants received from the government. However from 1981, the teachers in panchayats and municipal schools were regularised as state government employees. Decentralisation can help improve the poverty alleviating content of governmental interventions if: i. Local governments have the option to select programmes or schemes most suited to their requirements from among the numerous centrally designed schemes. 147

World Comparative Economic And Social Data
Police Stations - Tamil Nadu Police
N u m b e r o f S c h o o l s - DISE
Census 2011 population of Latur district
PDF: 1.0MB - Population Reference Bureau