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POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY TN

Annexure 4.2 METHODOLOGY

Annexure 4.2 METHODOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS Index Population Below Age 6 Birth Order 3 And Above Births Below Age 20 Under 5 Mortality Female Literacy Households Using Safe Drinking Water Households Having Toilet Facility Households Connected With Electricity Details (Data Based on 2001 Census) A larger proportion of the population in this age group signifies a higher level of young dependency ratio. Lower the proportion of this age group in the total, higher will be the index value and better will be the performance of the district Index Value (for d th district) = {Max (X 1d ) - X 1d }/{Max(X 1d )-Min (X 1d )} where X 1d signifies the proportion of population below 6 years in the d th district. A larger percentage of birth of order 3 and above implies higher fertility rates and a weak impact of family welfare programs. Lower the value of this index; the better it is for the district. Index = {Max(X 2d ) -X 2d }/{Max(X 2d )-Min(X 2d )} where X 2d = percentage of births of order 3 and above to the total no. of births in the d th district. This index accounts for the occurrence of pregnancies among women below the age of 20. Higher this percentage, greater the risks to maternal and child health and lesser the impact of family welfare programmes Index = {Max(X 3d ) - X 3d }/{Max(X 3d )-Min(X 3d )} where X 3d is the percentage of births to mothers below age 20 to the total births in the d th district The index measures the probability of dying for children under the age of five and serves as an indicator of child health status in the district. Index = {Max(X 4d ) - X 4d }/{Max(X 4d )-Min(X 4d )} where X 4d is the under 5 mortality rate in the d th district. The female literacy rate, measured as the proportion of women above the age of 7 who can read and write with some understanding of any language, serves as an indicator of human development in the district. Index = {X 5d - Min(X 5d )}/{Max(X 5d )-Min(X 5d )} where X 5d is the female literacy rate in the d th district. The index measures the proportion of households in the district having access to safe drinking water through any of the following 3 sources; tap, hand-pump and tube-well Index = {X 6d - Min(X 6d )}/{Max(X 6d )-Min(X 6d )} where X 6d measures the proportion of households using safe drinking in the d th district Households with access to pit latrine, water closet latrine or any other latrine are measured as a proportion of the total households in the district. Index = {X 7d - Min(X 7d )}/{Max(X 7d )-Min(X 7d )} where X 7d measures the proportion of households having any type of toilet facility using safe drinking water in the d th district. Since electricity serves many different purposes other than lighting such as cooking, the proportion of electrified houses to the total, serves as an indictor of development in the district. 244

Women Receiving 3 Or More ANC Visits During Pregnancy Women Receiving At Least 2 TT Injections Complete Immunization Coverage Immunization Dropout Contraceptive Prevalence Rate Index = {X 8d - Min(X 8d )}/{Max(X 8d )-Min(X 8d )} where X 8d measures the proportion of households connected with electricity in the d th district. Guidelines by the Ministry of family health and welfare recommend at least 3 Ante Natal visits during pregnancy to expectant mothers. Higher the prevalence of such a practice better is it for the district. Index = {X 9d -Min (X 9d )}/{Max(X 9d )-Min(X 9d )} where X 9d is the percentage of women receiving 3 or more ANC visits during pregnancy in the d th district In India a high proportion of infant deaths occur owing to diseases such as tetanus infections. A preventive measure is to administer 2 doses of TT injections to expectant mothers during early stages of pregnancy. Index = {X 10d -Min(X 10d )}/{Max(X 10d )-Min(X 10d )} where X 10d is the percentage of women receiving at least 2 TT injections during pregnancy in the d th district Complete immunization requires children to receive BCG, Polio, DPT and Measles vaccines. This index measures the proportion of children in the age group 12 to 23 months who have received complete immunization, in the district. Index = {X 11d - Min(X 11d }/{Max(X 11d )-Min(X 11d )} where X 11d is the proportion of children in the age group of 12 to 23 months completely immunized in the d th districts The Dropout rate measures the difference in the percentage of children receiving any vaccination and the % of children receiving all the prescribed vaccination. Index Value = {Max (X 12d ) - X 12d }/{Max(X 12d )-Min (X 12d )} where X 12d measures the percentage of children in the age group 12 to 23 months not receiving complete immunisation in the d th district A high contraceptive prevalence rate indicates the success rate of the districts family planning programs. Index Value = {X 13d - Min(X 13d )}/{Max(X 13d )-Min (X 13d )} Where X 13d measures the contraceptive prevalence rate in the d dth district Composite Index The composite index is an average of all the aforementioned indices and thereby serves as an indicator of the level of development of a district with respect to the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the population Index = (1/13)* (Σ X id ) 245

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    MONOGRAPH 6/2010 MDGs-BASED POVERTY

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    MONOGRAPH 6/2010 March 2010 Price:

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    CONTENTS Acknowledgements Contents

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    List of Tables Table 1.1 Millennium

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    Table 5.10 Status of Urban Water Su

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    Appendix 1.12 Maternal Mortality an

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    MDGs-Based Poverty Reduction: Main

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    . In terms of share of below povert

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    of expenditure on public goods like

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    households or individuals. For each

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    Chapter 1 ISSUES AND INITIAL CONDIT

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    The first three goals relate to era

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    . Poverty in Tamil Nadu: Inter-stat

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    and the urban poverty ratio was sli

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    the total poor accounted for a prog

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    physical development of people. Mor

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    Table 1.11: Millennium Development

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    indicates that Tamil Nadu will achi

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    However, there is a scope for meeti

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    status of malnutrition. The accepte

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    The under-five mortality rate-U5MR

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    (iv) HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Di

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    3. While Tami Nadu has done compara

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    Chapter 2 REDUCING POVERTY: THE MAC

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    est of the economy indicates the ex

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    share of the tertiary sector in Tam

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    Chart 2.1: Sectoral Growth in Tamil

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    policies are in place to absorb lar

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    In the context of interface between

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    Table 2.7: Decomposition of the Hea

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    Dutt are not so relevant for predic

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    The SDE estimates vary across the s

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    Chart 2.3 highlights that agricultu

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    2.6 Summary In summary the followin

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    Chapter 3 FISCAL REFORMS FOR POVERT

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    Bardhan (1996) emphasizes that ofte

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    atio of government employees to pop

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    Table 3.2: Tamil Nadu in Inter-stat

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    Chart 3.4: Own Tax Revenues Relativ

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    collected by state-owned enterprise

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    Chart 3.5: Capital Outlay as percen

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    The Fiscal Policy Strategy Statemen

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    f. Pension and Salary Expenditures

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    10 it is kept at 40 percent to acco

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    Government of Tamil Nadu has to sub

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    Chapter 4 COPING WITH SPATIAL IMBAL

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    In order to focus on the deficient

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    Chart 4.2 indicates the arrangement

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    Chart 4.5: Human Development Index:

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    Table 4.4: Index of Gender Deficien

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    Districts Table 4.7: Health Facilit

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    Regarding access costs in availing

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    4.6 Incidence of Poverty: District

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    district followed by Villupuram and

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    household willing to do public work

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    Districts Table 4.13: Implementatio

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    Table 4.14: Share of BPL Population

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    Table 4.16: Block -wise Gross Acces

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    Table 4.18: Block-wise IMR in Thiru

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    8. For provision of safe drinking w

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    Chapter 5 WATER, LAND AND AGRICULTU

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    5.2 Water: Key Issues in Tamil Nadu

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    Table 5.3: Sources of Water Supply

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    funding under the Water Resources C

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    In 2006-7, 65.83 percent of habitat

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    the major cause for poor maintenanc

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    about 30 litre per capita per day (

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    2006-07). However, total area under

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    nearly 3.5 times as high as the pri

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    5.4 Agriculture: Key Issues Agricul

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    Table 5.19: Productivity (Yield) of

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    Only rice and sugarcane received ir

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    iv. There are severe water quality

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    Chapter 6 LAST MILE REACH STRATEGIE

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    targeting as a device to improve ef

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    eneficiaries and of delivering prog

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    In the nighbourhood of the poverty

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    inefficiencies. Some of the major c

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    Tamil Nadu is close to achieving un

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    programmes. It is the only Self Emp

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    districts in Tamil Nadu. Namadhu Gr

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    6.5 Reaching Households and Individ

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    proposition more insurable, a group

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    line to post-office saving banks or

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    each the urban poor who live in slu

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    Eleventh Plan (2007) observes: “O

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    i. provide financial assistance for

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    unemployed or underemployed poor by

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    Services Prepare detailed water sup

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    Chapter 7 SUMMARY AND FORMULATION O

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    positive and relatively high. The b

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    3. In terms of composition of BPL p

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    holdings are smaller than 4 hectare

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    There are considerable inter-distri

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    Table 7.1: Adjustment during 2007-0

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    R i =(I a +I max -I i )/(I a +I max

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    line to post-office saving banks or

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    d. Targeting As far as rural areas

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    7.6 Urban Poverty Reduction Strateg

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    Fund, GoTN has created Tamil Nadu I

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    Some initiative by Government of Ta

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    • Addressing urban poverty allevi

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    land. There is need to develop a sc

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    REFERENCES Agarwal, S.P. (2005),

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    Deaton, Angus and Alessandro Tarozz

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    Himmelfarb, G. (1984), The Idea of

  • Page 215 and 216: Report of the Working Group on Urba
  • Page 217 and 218: APPENDIX TABLES Appendix Table 1.1:
  • Page 219 and 220: Appendix Table 1.1 (contd.): Millen
  • Page 221 and 222: Appendix Table 1.2 (a): Poverty Lin
  • Page 223 and 224: Appendix Table 1.3: Poverty Gap Est
  • Page 225 and 226: Appendix Table 1.5: Head Count Rati
  • Page 227 and 228: Appendix Table 1.6 (contd.): Progre
  • Page 229 and 230: Appendix Table 1.8: Women’s Malnu
  • Page 231 and 232: Appendix Table 1.10: Child Mortalit
  • Page 233 and 234: Appendix Table 1.11 (contd.): State
  • Page 235 and 236: Appendix Table1.12 (contd.): Matern
  • Page 237 and 238: Appendix Table 2.3: Decomposition o
  • Page 239 and 240: and Publicity Relief from Natural C
  • Page 241 and 242: Appendix Table 4.3: Demography Rela
  • Page 243 and 244: Appendix Table 4.5: Health Faciliti
  • Page 245 and 246: Sl. No Appendix Table 4.7: Efficien
  • Page 247 and 248: Appendix Table 4.9: Employment unde
  • Page 249 and 250: Appendix Table 5.1: Major and Mediu
  • Page 251 and 252: Appendix Table 7.1: Indices for Dis
  • Page 253 and 254: ANNEXURES 231
  • Page 255 and 256: Monotonicity Sensitivity Axiom Mono
  • Page 257 and 258: component of the poverty line is th
  • Page 259 and 260: Fuchs (1969), while advocating the
  • Page 261 and 262: H = m/n (2) The head count ratio ig
  • Page 263 and 264: Annexure 1.3 UNIFORM RECALL PERIOD
  • Page 265: ‣ Periyar became Erode; ‣ Tirun
  • Page 269 and 270: In Sivagangai, as per 2001 census,
  • Page 271 and 272: Table 4.3: Block wise Gender Wise G
  • Page 273 and 274: Block Table 4.6: Trained Teachers a
  • Page 275 and 276: Annexure 5.1 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUE
  • Page 277 and 278: Annexure 6.1 NOTES ON SELECTED CENT
  • Page 279 and 280: 10. Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalay
  • Page 281: MSE Working Papers Recent Issues *
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