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. MDGs and Education

. MDGs and Education Status in Tamil Nadu During 1991 to 2001 the literacy rate of Tamil Nadu increased significantly from 62.7 to 73.5 percent (10.8 percentage points increase) and the all India literacy increased from 52.2 to 64.8 percent (12.6 percentage points rise) 5 [Appendix Table 1.7]. If the same trend continues, the literacy in Tamil Nadu and all India will probably reach 91.9 percent and 87.7 percent respectively in 2015 (Table 1.11 and Appendix Table 1.6). In 2001, the female literacy of the state was only 63.4 percent and the all-India rate was 53.7 percent. The projections imply that the former would reach 88.5 percent and the latter 83.1 percent in 2015. It is heartening to note that the literacy rate of 15-24 year olds in Tamil Nadu was 88.4 percent in 2001 (all-India rate was 76.4 percent) and that this surpassed the overall literacy rate. However, the female literacy in this age group was only 84.2 percent as against the national figure of 67.7 percent (Table 1.12). The MDG in this area calls for ensuring that all boys and girls will complete a full course of primary schooling. This means that the dropout rate at primary level should be zero by 2015. Between 1991-92 and 2006-07 the dropout rate at primary level declined from 19.3 to 8.02 percent. 6 During 1991-92 to 2001-02, the rate at middle school level decreased from 41.7 to 35.1 percent. Thus dropout rates are still very high. Our projections indicate that the dropout rate at primary level and middle level will reduce to 4.7 percent and 27.5 percent respectively by 2015. These figures put the state off-track to meet the MDG. Table 1.12: Selective Education Indicators Indicators Years India Tamil Nadu Literacy Rate of 15-24 Year-olds (%): 1991 61.9 Total $ 2001 76.4 88.4 Literacy Rate of 15-24 Year-olds (%): 1991 49.3 Female $ 2001 67.7 84.2 1991-92 42.6 19.3 School Drop Outs at Primary Level *^ 2006-07 25.06 8.02 School Drop Outs at Middle Level * 1991-92 60.91 41.67 2001-02 57.3 35.07 Gross Enrolment at Primary * 1990-91 100.1 134.00 2006-07 111.4 117.81 Source: $ Calculated using Census Data; * Economic Survey of India (various issues); ^ Selcted Educational Statistics, 2006-07. 5 The UMI reference level is 95 percent. 6 The all-India figure decreased from 42.6 percent to 25.06 percent. 16

However, there is a scope for meeting the goal. The Indian Government has launched the National Program of Universal Education known as Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA). The SSA sets out to have all children completing five years of schooling by 2007, to have all children completing eight years of schooling by 2010, to eliminate gender and social disparities in primary schooling by 2007 and by 2010 in secondary schooling and to have universal retention of children in primary school by 2010. The 11 th Plan approach paper (2007-12) sets out to increase literacy rate to 85 percent and to lower gender gap in literacy to 10 percentage points. While it is extremely promising that the government itself has laid out these goals that go beyond the MDGs within a shorter time frame, it remains to be seen whether any of these will be met. c. Millennium Development Goals and Gender Equality in Tamil Nadu The state is well on track in terms of improving the proportion of girls to boys in primary education. The ratio increased from 0.86 in 1990-91 to 0.94 in 2006-07. The corresponding national figures are 0.71 and 0.88 (Table 1.13). It is estimated that if improvements continue at their current rate the ratio of girls to boys in primary school will reach the required level in 2018 in Tamil Nadu (in 2016 for all-India). It is noted that the ratio at middle level in Tamil Nadu was 0.93 in 2006-07 (as against the national figure of 0.82). As stated earlier, Tamil Nadu has been successful in using mid-day meals scheme for school children to enhance rates of enrolment and retention overtime. Table 1.13: Gender Equality Indicators Indicators Years India Tamil Nadu Gross Enrolment at Primary: Girls/boys * 1990-91 0.71 0.86 2006-07 0.88 0.94 Gross Enrolment at Middle: Girls/boys * 1990-91 0.58 2006-07 0.82 0.93 Proportion of Women Lok Sabha (percent) $ 1999 9.00 3.00 2004 8.00 3.00 Proportion of Women in Labor Market 1991 22.50 30.40 (percent) # 2001 23.30 31.40 Women in Labor Market (Non-agriculture 1991 13.53 18.95 Sector) # 2001 17.21 23.42 Source: # Census of India (2001); * Economic Survey (various issues) and Selected Educational Statistics, 2006-07; and $ Election Commission of India. The participation of female workers in the total work force is summarised in Table 1.14. It is shown that the share of female work force to total work force has gone 17

World Comparative Economic And Social Data
Police Stations - Tamil Nadu Police
Nammakal - Tamil Nadu Police
N u m b e r o f S c h o o l s - DISE
Census 2011 population of Latur district
PDF: 1.0MB - Population Reference Bureau